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But the grouping of these three Roman deities seems…. The last seems most likely, since his offering was a she-goat humano ritu; …. Diocletian Roman religion In Roman religion: Veneration of objects In Roman religion: The legend of Scipio Vejovis In Vejovis. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources.

At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Internet URLs are the best. Thank You for Your Contribution! There was a problem with your submission. At the Latiar the rocking took place on a tree and the winner was of course the one who had swung the highest. This rite was said to have been instituted by the Albans to commemorate the disappearance of king Latinus , in the battle against Mezentius king of Caere: The rocking as well as the customary drinking of milk was also considered to commemorate and ritually reinstate infancy.

In Rome a race of chariots quadrigae was held starting from the Capitol: The Latiar became an important feature of Roman political life as they were feriae conceptivae , i. They could not start campaigning before its end and if any part of the games had been neglected or performed unritually the Latiar had to be wholly repeated. The inscriptions from the imperial age record the festival back to the time of the decemvirs.

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The Ides the midpoint of the month, with a full moon was sacred to Jupiter, because on that day heavenly light shone day and night. The nundinae recurred every ninth day, dividing the calendar into a market cycle analogous to a week. Market days gave rural people pagi the opportunity to sell in town and to be informed of religious and political edicts, which were posted publicly for three days.

According to tradition, these festival days were instituted by the king Servius Tullius. During the Republican era , more fixed holidays on the Roman calendar were devoted to Jupiter than to any other deity. Festivals of viniculture and wine were devoted to Jupiter, since grapes were particularly susceptible to adverse weather.

Raymond Z. Gallun

The rustic Vinalia altera on August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest. The Meditrinalia on October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; the new wine was pressed , tasted and mixed with old wine [82] to control fermentation. In the Fasti Amiternini , this festival is assigned to Jupiter.

Later Roman sources invented a goddess Meditrina , probably to explain the name of the festival. At the Vinalia urbana on April 23, new wine was offered to Jupiter. The Regifugium "King's Flight" [86] on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the Poplifugia on July 5, a day holy to Jupiter. Later Roman antiquarians misinterpreted the Regifugium as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the "king" of this festival may have been the priest known as the rex sacrorum who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the New Year March 1 in the old Roman calendar.

The Poplifugia "Routing of Armies" [91] , a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year; before the Julian calendar reform , the months were named numerically, Quintilis the fifth month to December the tenth month.

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There were two festivals called epulum Iovis "Feast of Jove". One was held on September 13, the anniversary of the foundation of Jupiter's Capitoline temple. The other and probably older festival was part of the Plebeian Games Ludi Plebei , and was held on November The most ancient Roman games followed after one day considered a dies ater , or "black day", i. The games of September were named Ludi Magni ; originally they were not held every year, but later became the annual Ludi Romani [96] and were held in the Circus Maximus after a procession from the Capitol.

The games were attributed to Tarquinius Priscus, [97] and linked to the cult of Jupiter on the Capitol. Their association with the cult of Jupiter is attested by Cicero. The feriae of December 23 were devoted to a major ceremony in honour of Acca Larentia or Larentina , in which some of the highest religious authorities participated probably including the Flamen Quirinalis and the pontiffs.

The Fasti Praenestini marks the day as feriae Iovis , as does Macrobius. Wissowa denies their association, since Jupiter and his flamen would not be involved with the underworld or the deities of death or be present at a funeral rite held at a gravesite. Jove [] is a less common English formation based on Iov- , the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name.

The terms are similar in etymology and semantics dies , "daylight" and Dius , "daytime sky" , but differ linguistically. Wissowa considers the epithet Dianus noteworthy. The Roman practice of swearing by Jove to witness an oath in law courts [] is the origin of the expression "by Jove! The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter ; the adjective " jovial " originally described those born under the planet of Jupiter [] reputed to be jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament.

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Jove was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday now known in English as Thursday [] originally called Iovis Dies in Latin. The epithets of a Roman god indicate his theological qualities. The study of these epithets must consider their origins the historical context of an epithet's source. Jupiter's most ancient attested forms of cult belong to the State cult: In Rome this cult entailed the existence of particular sanctuaries the most important of which were located on Mons Capitolinus earlier Tarpeius. The mount had two tops that were both destined to the discharge of acts of cult related to Jupiter.

The northern and higher top was the arx and on it was located the observation place of the augurs auguraculum and to it headed the monthly procession of the sacra Idulia. The god here had no image and was represented by the sacred flintstone silex. Another most ancient epithet is Lucetius: A group of epithets has been interpreted by Wissowa and his followers as a reflection of the agricultural or warring nature of the god, some of which are also in the list of eleven preserved by Augustine.

Opitulus because he brings opem means, relief to the needy, Almus because he nourishes everything, Ruminus because he nourishes the living beings by breastfeeding them, Pecunia because everything belongs to him. Rumach Etruscan for Roman. However many scholars have argued that the name of Rome, Ruma , meant in fact woman's breast. Rumina instead of Ruminus, might be nothing else than Iuppiter: The epithet Dapalis is on the other hand connected to a rite described by Cato and mentioned by Festus.

The language suggests another attitude: Jupiter is invited to a banquet which is supposedly abundant and magnificent. The god is honoured as summus. The peasant may hope he shall receive a benefit, but he does not say it. This interpretation finds support in the analogous urban ceremony of the epulum Iovis , from which the god derives the epithet of Epulo and which was a magnificent feast accompanied by flutes.

Iuppiter Stator was first attributed by tradition to Romulus , who had prayed the god for his almighty help at a difficult time the battle with the Sabines of king Titus Tatius. Jupiter acts by causing an inexplicable change in the morale of the fighters of the two sides. The same feature can be detected also in the certainly historical record of the battle of the third Samnite War in BC, in which consul Marcus Atilius Regulus vowed a temple to Iuppiter Stator if "Jupiter will stop the rout of the Roman army and if afterwards the Samnite legions shall be victouriously massacred It looked as if the gods themselves had taken side with Romans, so much easily did the Roman arms succeed in prevailing The religious meaning of the vow is in both cases an appeal to the supreme god by a Roman chief at a time of need for divine help from the supreme god, albeit for different reasons: Fabius had remained the only political and military responsible of the Roman State after the devotio of P.

Decius Mus, Papirius had to face an enemy who had acted with impious rites and vows, i. More recently Dario Sabbatucci has given a different interpretation of the meaning of Stator within the frame of his structuralistic and dialectic vision of Roman calendar, identifying oppositions, tensions and equilibria: January is the month of Janus , at the beginning of the year, in the uncertain time of winter the most ancient calendar had only ten months, from March to December. In this month Janus deifies kingship and defies Jupiter.

Moreover, January sees also the presence of Veiovis who appears as an anti-Jupiter, of Carmenta who is the goddess of birth and like Janus has two opposed faces, Prorsa and Postvorta also named Antevorta and Porrima , of Iuturna , who as a gushing spring evokes the process of coming into being from non-being as the god of passage and change does.

In this period the preeminence of Janus needs compensating on the Ides through the action of Jupiter Stator , who plays the role of anti-Janus, i. Some epithets of Jupiter indicate his association with a particular place. Epithets found in the provinces of the Roman Empire may identify Jupiter with a local deity or site see syncretism.


In addition, many of the epithets of Zeus can be found applied to Jupiter, by interpretatio romana. Except in representing actual cults in Italy, this is largely 19th-century usage; modern works distinguish Jupiter from Zeus. Marcus Terentius Varro and Verrius Flaccus [] were the main sources on the theology of Jupiter and archaic Roman religion in general.

Varro was acquainted with the libri pontificum "books of the Pontiffs " and their archaic classifications. One of the most important sources which preserve the theology of Jupiter and other Roman deities is The City of God against the Pagans by Augustine of Hippo. Augustine's criticism of traditional Roman religion is based on Varro's lost work, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum. Although a work of Christian apologetics , The City of God provides glimpses into Varro's theological system and authentic Roman theological lore in general.

According to Augustine, [] Varro drew on the pontiff Mucius Scaevola 's tripartite theology:. Georg Wissowa stressed Jupiter's uniqueness as the only case among Indo-European religions in which the original god preserved his name, his identity and his prerogatives. His name reflects this idea; it is a derivative of the Indo-European word for "bright, shining sky". His residence is found atop the hills of Rome and of mountains in general; as a result, his cult is present in Rome and throughout Italy at upper elevations.

However, Wissowa acknowledges that Jupiter is not merely a naturalistic, heavenly, supreme deity; he is in continual communication with man by means of thunder, lightning and the flight of birds his auspices. Through his vigilant watch he is also the guardian of public oaths and compacts and the guarantor of good faith in the State cult.

Wissowa considered Jupiter also a god of war and agriculture, in addition to his political role as guarantor of good faith public and private as Iuppiter Lapis and Dius Fidius , respectively. His view is grounded in the sphere of action of the god who intervenes in battle and influences the harvest through weather.

Wissowa , pp. In Vedic religion , Dyaus Pitar remained confined to his distant, removed, passive role and the place of sovereign god was occupied by Varuna and Mitra. In Rome, Jupiter also sent signs to the leaders of the state in the form of auspices in addition to thunder. The art of augury was considered prestigious by ancient Romans; by sending his signs, Jupiter the sovereign of heaven communicates his advice to his terrestrial colleague: The encounter between the heavenly and political, legal aspects of the deity are well represented by the prerogatives, privileges, functions and taboos proper to his flamen the flamen Dialis and his wife, the flaminica Dialis.

His view is based on the methodological assumption that the chief criterion for studying a god's nature is not to consider his field of action, but the quality, method and features of his action.

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Consequently, the analysis of the type of action performed by Jupiter in the domains in which he operates indicates that Jupiter is a sovereign god who may act in the field of politics as well as agriculture and war in his capacity as such, i. Sovereignty is expressed through the two aspects of absolute, magic power epitomised and represented by the Vedic god Varuna and lawful right by the Vedic god Mitra. Varro's definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full expression of every being penes Iovem sunt summa reflects the sovereign nature of the god, as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus god of passages and change on their beginning penes Ianum sunt prima.

The Capitoline Triad was introduced to Rome by the Tarquins. It is possible that the Etruscans paid particular attention to Menrva Minerva as a goddess of destiny, in addition to the royal couple Uni Juno and Tinia Jupiter. The Archaic Triad is a hypothetical theological structure or system consisting of the gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. The sovereign function embodied by Jupiter entailed omnipotence; thence, a domain extended over every aspect of nature and life. The colour relating to the sovereign function is white.

The three functions are interrelated with one another, overlapping to some extent; the sovereign function, although essentially religious in nature, is involved in many ways in areas pertaining to the other two. Therefore, Jupiter is the "magic player" in the founding of the Roman state and the fields of war, agricultural plenty, human fertility and wealth.

Apart from being protectress of the arts and craft as Minerva Capta, who was brought from Falerii, Minerva's association to Jupiter and relevance to Roman state religion is mainly linked to the Palladium , a wooden statue of Athena that could move the eyes and wave the spear. It was stored in the penus interior , inner penus of the aedes Vestae , temple of Vesta and considered the most important among the pignora imperii , pawns of dominion, empire. Scholars though think it was last taken to Rome in the third or second century BC.

The divine couple received from Greece its matrimonial implications, thence bestowing on Juno the role of tutelary goddess of marriage Iuno Pronuba. The couple itself though cannot be reduced to a Greek apport.

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  6. The association of Juno and Jupiter is of the most ancient Latin theology. These gods were the most ancient deities of every Latin town. Praeneste preserved divine filiation and infancy as the sovereign god and his paredra Juno have a mother who is the primordial goddess Fortuna Primigenia. Two of the votive inscriptions to Fortuna associate her and Jupiter: In though R. Mowat published an inscription in which Fortuna is called daughter of Jupiter , raising new questions and opening new perspectives in the theology of Latin gods.

    Angelo Brelich has interpreted this theology as the basic opposition between the primordial absence of order chaos and the organisation of the cosmos. The relation of Jupiter to Janus is problematic.

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    Varro defines Jupiter as the god who has potestas power over the forces by which anything happens in the world. Janus, however, has the privilege of being invoked first in rites, since in his power are the beginnings of things prima , the appearance of Jupiter included. The Latins considered Saturn the predecessor of Jupiter.

    Saturn reigned in Latium during a mythical Golden Age reenacted every year at the festival of Saturnalia. Saturn also retained primacy in matters of agriculture and money.

    Jupiter (mythology)

    Unlike the Greek tradition of Cronus and Zeus, the usurpation of Saturn as king of the gods by Jupiter was not viewed by the Latins as violent or hostile; Saturn continued to be revered in his temple at the foot of the Capitol Hill, which maintained the alternative name Saturnius into the time of Varro.

    Pasqualini has argued that Saturn was related to Iuppiter Latiaris , the old Jupiter of the Latins, as the original figure of this Jupiter was superseded on the Alban Mount, whereas it preserved its gruesome character in the ceremony held at the sanctuary of the Latiar Hill in Rome which involved a human sacrifice and the aspersion of the statue of the god with the blood of the victim.

    The abstract personification Fides "Faith, Trust" was one of the oldest gods associated with Jupiter. As guarantor of public faith, Fides had her temple on the Capitol near that of Capitoline Jupiter. Wissowa argued that while Jupiter is the god of the Fides Publica Populi Romani as Iuppiter Lapis by whom important oaths are sworn , Dius Fidius is a deity established for everyday use and was charged with the protection of good faith in private affairs.

    Dius Fidius would thus correspond to Zeus Pistios. The functionality of Sancus occurs consistently within the sphere of fides , oaths and respect for contracts and of the divine-sanction guarantee against their breach. Wissowa suggested that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter, [] but the concept of a deity's genius is a development of the Imperial period.

    Some aspects of the oath-ritual for Dius Fidius such as proceedings under the open sky or in the compluvium of private residences , and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, suggest that the oath sworn by Dius Fidius predated that for Iuppiter Lapis or Iuppiter Feretrius. Augustine quotes Varro who explains the genius as "the god who is in charge and has the power to generate everything" and "the rational spirit of all therefore, everyone has their own ". Augustine concludes that Jupiter should be considered the genius of the universe. Wissowa advanced the hypothesis that Semo Sancus is the genius of Jupiter.

    Fowler has cautioned that this interpretation looks to be an anachronism and it would only be acceptable to say that Sancus is a Genius Iovius , as it appears from the Iguvine Tables. Censorinus cites Granius Flaccus as saying that "the Genius was the same entity as the Lar" in his lost work De Indigitamentis.

    Mutunus Tutunus had his shrine at the foot of the Velian Hill near those of the Di Penates and of Vica Pota, who were among the most ancient gods of the Roman community of according to Wissowa. A connection between Genius and Jupiter seems apparent in Plautus ' comedy Amphitryon , in which Jupiter takes up the looks of Alcmena 's husband in order to seduce her: Hubeaux sees there a reflection of the story that Scipio Africanus ' mother conceived him with a snake that was in fact Jupiter transformed.

    The god of nighttime lightning has been interpreted as an aspect of Jupiter, either a chthonic manifestation of the god or a separate god of the underworld. Apollo is quickly attacked by some thugs and beaten up. Stripped of his godly powers Apollo is defenseless until a young girl with incredible strength, named Meg McCaffrey saves the day.

    Apollo must redeem himself by serving a demigod on Earth, and Meg just happens to be one. Along the way they are attacked by monsters but survive. The oracles are not working and because of that demigods have no guidance and no way of partaking in a quest. An ancient enemy of Apollo, Python, has taken control of the original cave at Delphi. Our heroes are in some serious trouble. Demigod campers have disappeared as well, but there is hope. Determined to save the lost demigods, two of which are his kids, Apollo and Meg journey into the woods and encounter one of the villains of our story, Emperor Nero.

    We learn that Nero and his pals are also responsible for bankrolling the Titan war in the Percy Jackson and the Olympians series as well as the war with Gaea in the Heroes of Olympus series. Nero is just one part of a triumvirate of former Roman Emperors who have lived well past their death.